Measurement of Electron Drift in Gas

This project aims at measuring the velocity of drifting electrons triggered by UV laser, which can be considered as a prototype of the TPC (Time Projection Chamber) laser calibration system. The introduction includes the following aspects: the design of the system, data collection, data analysis and preliminary results.

Whole System

High voltage is applied to the MPC (Multiwire Proportional Chamber) to generate a uniform electric field. Treated as a point-like particle, the laser-stimulated electrons in the field will reach a constant velocity in the working gas soon after their appearance. Since the accelerating time is short, we can assume the drifting time is approximately proportional to the drifting distance. Through a linear fit, we can get the drifting velocity of certain kind of working gas.

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The Drift Chamber

The system is designed under the principle of automatic control. The motion of MPC is dominated by a stepper motor, which is controlled by computer. The theoretical precision of motion is approximately 1 μm. The amplified signals of Laser and MPC are sampled and shown on oscilloscope. The connection between computer and oscilloscope ensures the arbitrariness of data collection. We write a LabView program to manage both of these. Abundant data are collected on each position and then exports to a file.

Apparatus Sketch
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Data Acquisition based on LabVIEW

In order to calculate the drifting velocity from amplitude varied data, special strategy should be applied. For each group, we find the average of maximum and minimum. Then we fit the data (either ascending or descending slope) to obtain its linear regression equation and solve for the time on that average level. The average of these time spots can be considered as the drifting time of the point. Linear fit these drifting time points to derive the drifting velocity.

Signal Analysis & Fitting

The working gas we adopted was 9.97% Methane in Argon. We sampled 20 times for each point, with total 10 sampling points in all. The drifting velocity we find is  u=(4.840±0.053)×10^4 m/s and is also supported by other researches.

DCDA
Drift Time vs Drift Distance
Results from other sources